News image 2021-03-29

Northeast Nigeria crisis: Simple stoves boost safety of female firewood gatherers

The World Food Programme (WFP) is distributing fuel efficient stoves to families displaced by the conflict in Northeast Nigeria to reduce the protection risks faced by women and girls, when they have to collect firewood from unsafe areas

In her short life, 16-year-old Hassana Ali h...s experienced the kind of hardship and suffering that no-one should have to endure. At 12, her childhood ended abruptly when she was abducted from her home in the small village of Duno, in Nigeria’s northeast state of Borno.

One morning, members of a non-state armed group came to her village and started taking girls and young women. Hassana’s parents could only watch as she was led away to the fighter’s stronghold deep in the Sambisa Forest. There, she was married off to a fighter and lived, virtually as a prisoner in his house for the next two years.

“I was so unhappy that I wept almost every day,” says Hassana. “Eventually I managed to escape and run away back to my village and then I came here to Banki where it is safer.”

16-year-old Hassana Ali has lived in Banki for the past two years and is the sole carer for her Grandmother and four younger siblings. Photo: WFP / Patrick Fuller

Banki sits close to the border with Cameroon, and in April 2016 the town was left largely abandoned when it was taken by the Government forces from the non-state armed groups who had occupied it for over a year. Now, Banki is encircled by a 20-foot deep protective trench and the army remains ever-vigilant to the threat of possible attacks.

Some 45,000 displaced people driven out of surrounding villages by the conflict live here, totally dependent on WFP for their food security. Almost 70% of the camp population in Banki are women and many households are female-headed. One of the most dangerous tasks they have to undertake is the gathering of firewood for cooking.

An assessment carried out by WFP in January 2018 in four local government areas in Borno state, revealed that 85% of women felt unsafe when collecting firewood. About 76% were not able to cover their daily cooking needs due to inadequate supplies of firewood; and 70% had no access to wood fuel in their immediate living environment as a result of the insecurity stemming from the ongoing conflict which has limited people’s movements.

Fuel is a valuable commodity in Banki camp. Women and young girls are vulnerable to harassment and physical assault when they venture into the bush to gather firewood. Photo: WFP / Patrick Fuller

As the sole carer and breadwinner for her four younger siblings and elderly grandmother, Hassana understands the ordeal related to fetching wood.

As a step towards reducing such risks, WFP, together with its partner INTERSOS, an Italian non-governmental organisation (NGO), has distributed over 7,000 fuel-efficient stoves in Banki camp. The stoves distribution is part of WFP’s Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) Initiative. Almost every family in the camp will benefit from the stoves which are made from a thick layer of clay encased in metal. Photo: WFP / Patrick Fuller

“When we distribute food to a vulnerable population, our aim is to make sure that people are able to prepare that food safely without putting themselves in harm’s way,” explains Sarah Longford, Country Director a.i. in Nigeria. “These stoves are fuel efficient which means that they provide a greater level of protection to women and girls who can spend less time gathering firewood.”

Hassana is used to cooking over an open fire with a single pot balanced over three stones. But with her new stove it takes a fraction of the time to boil a pot of water and cook some sorghum porridge for her family’s midday meal. Constructed from a metal casing around a thick layer of clay, the stoves are extremely efficient at retaining heat.

“Sometimes, at the end of the month we would have to sell a portion of our food rations to buy firewood and then skip meals to survive until the next ration comes,” says Hassana. “This stove uses about half the amount of wood that I usually need to prepare a meal. We can now save money on fuel and not go hungry.”

Hassana sifts WFP sorghum flour to prepare porridge on her new stove for her family’s midday meal. Photo: WFP / Patrick Fuller.

With firewood becoming an increasingly scarce and expensive commodity, quite often, many families are forced into poor dietary habits because they cannot afford fuel. This might mean eating fewer meals or increasing consumption of less nutritious foods that do not require cooking. The stoves also have additional health and environmental benefits. They help to prevent further degradation of the environment and produce far less smoke than traditional fires, reducing the incidence of respiratory diseases. Furthermore, the design of the stoves reduces the safety risks, such as fires, when used inside houses.

WFP plans to roll out the stoves distribution programme across four additional local government areas in Borno and is finalizing plans to begin the second phase of a longer term project aimed at increasing income-generating opportunities for people in the camps. This involves training women and girls in how to manufacture and market the stoves locally.

WFP Protection Officer, Lillian Ohuma displays one of the 7,000 fuel efficient stoves distributed to displaced families in Banki, Northeast Nigeria. Photo: WFP

Together with other food security partners, WFP has also been advocating with the Nigerian Armed Forces to ensure that affected populations have safer access to firewood collection. This includes increasing the number of patrols responsible for accompanying civilians.

Despite the hardship she has endured and the burden of responsibility that comes with looking after her family using a small stipend earned as a volunteer with INTERSOS, Hassana lives in hope that things will be different in the future.

“I have never been to school and I hope to have the opportunity one day. I want to learn how to read and write so that I can do something useful that helps my family and other people who might be in my kind of situation.”

Hassana’s family eat a simple diet based on sorghum and pulses provided by WFP supplemented by vegetables bought from the local market. Photo: WFP / Patrick Fuller

WFP recognizes the support of donors for its food assistance activities in northeast Nigeria. Canada, European Commission (ECHO), Finland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (DFID), the United States (USAID), and private donors have made contributions to WFP Nigeria this year.

To continue its emergency operation in northeast Nigeria, WFP urgently requires US$ 100 million to provide emergency food assistance, prevent malnutrition in young children and pregnant and breastfeeding women, support livelihoods and retain flexibility to respond to further displacement through March 2019.


Nigeria needs single policy to address clean cooking challenges, says Eleri

Ewah Eleri is the Executive Director, International Centre for Energy, Environme...  more

Wood-fired stoves have powered Nigerian cooking for time immemorial. But cleaner cooking could go a long way to saving lives, and carbon emissions, in Africa's most populous nation

Catherine Chinenye's morning routine is one of early morning prayers and bre...  more

Two-thirds of all Nigerians could benefit from clean cooking by 2030

About 66% of all Nigerian households could have access to clean cooking by 2030 ...  more

Why FG Should Discourage Use Of Firewood – Eleri

Nigeria is currently in the process of revising its Nationally Determined ...  more

FG makes clean cooking part of climate change response

Nigeria is currently revising its commitment to the Paris Agreement. It has iden...  more


The International Centre for Energy, Environment and Development Foundation is committed to the goal of poverty eradication. We deliver this commitment by providing the evidence base for reforms and political influence that shape the poor's energy and climate security. ICEED has over the years of its establishment become Nigeria's leading centre on energy access and climate change. Together with some of the world's foremost resource centres, we have brought market development expertise, capacity building, project implementation and behaviour communication to Nigeria. ICEED has led some of the most important clean energy and climate change activities including the development and promotion of the Bill to Establish the National Climate Change Commission; leading the development of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory for Nigeria and writing the Federal Government of Nigeria's Renewable Energy Master Plan. Our key expertise is in policy reform and market development for expanding access to clean energy.

While ICEED provides the evidence base and advocacy for policy change on clean energy and climate change, the Centre is solidly on the ground changing lives through projects in communities around the country. ICEED has clean energy footprints in communities in over half of the states of the Nigerian federation.

© ICEED Nigeria 2020